AP FRQ 2009 Question

Posted: October 14, 2010 in Uncategorized

AP Biology FRQ 2009 #3

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a species.

(a) The evolution of a species is dependent on changes in the genome of the species. Identify TWO mechanisms of genetic change, and explain how each affects genetic variation.

(b) Based on the data in the table below, draw a phylogenetic tree that reflects the evolutionary relationships of the organisms based on the differences in their cytochrome c amino-acid sequences and explain the relationships of the organisms. Based on the data, identify which organism is most closely related to the chicken and explain your choice.

(c) Describe TWO types of evidence—other than the comparison of proteins—that can be used to determine the phylogeny of organisms. Discuss one strength of each type of evidence you described.

My question is does the tree have to look like this:

Or could it look like this:

 

In my opinion the branching of the penguin and the chicken isn’t immediately apparent from the data table – are we supposed to assume that because they are birds it should look like one of the first two trees or would the third tree also be acceptable?

 

 

 

 

 

AP Biology FRQ 2009 #3

Phylogeny is the evolutionary history of a species.

(a) The evolution of a species is dependent on changes in the genome of the species. Identify TWO mechanisms of genetic change, and explain how each affects genetic variation.

(b) Based on the data in the table below, draw a phylogenetic tree that reflects the evolutionary relationships of the organisms based on the differences in their cytochrome c amino-acid sequences and explain the relationships of the organisms. Based on the data, identify which organism is most closely related to the chicken and explain your choice.

(c) Describe TWO types of evidence—other than the comparison of proteins—that can be used to determine the phylogeny of organisms. Discuss one strength of each type of evidence you described.

2010 Introductions

Posted: August 23, 2010 in Assignment

Welcome to AP Biology! In order for us all to get to know each other a little better, and to get familiar with the format of the class blog I am going to ask you a few easy questions to help you get started. Remember that this week you are posting answers to my questions, and next week you will be responding to each other’s posts. If you feel inclined to respond to each other prior to next week you may, just remember that you must post on two different days during week 2 in order to earn full credit.

Make sure that you subscribe to changes to the class blog by subscribing to the RSS feed. If you need more information on what a RSS feed is and how to use it you can learn more by clicking here. This way you wont ever miss out on the exciting things going on online.

Questions:

1. What school activities are you involved in or do you want to be involved in?

2. If you could be any historical figure throughout history, or any fictional character, who would you be and why?

3. What are you most interested in learning about in Biology this year, and what are you most dreading?

Hey Kiddos

You will be departing soon for the wonderful world of college and I wanted to provide you with a few resources so you don’t get scurvy or some other disease caused by malnourishment (anyone remember the names of those diseases??? Bonus recipes if you do). Let me know what you think of them, and if you try them. Also if you have any tasty mods for the recipes go ahead and post them here!

Bon Appetit!
1 package ramen noodles
1 large egg
1/4 cup shredded cheese

Bring 1.5 cups of water to a boil and add the noodles. Cook for 3 minutes and reduce heat to low. (Reduce amount of water after noodles are cooked if you like a slightly drier texture) Add seasoning packet and stir to mix.
Crack egg into a bowl and whisk with a fork. Drizzle slowly into ramen noodle pot and after all the egg is added stir quickly to keep the egg separated (like if you were making egg drop soup). Egg should cook pretty quickly and once it is finished (no more runny egg to be seen) it’s done!

Add cheese and stir to mix. Season with fresh ground black pepper (regular pepper will work in a pinch but investing in a pepper grinder is a cheap and delicious way to add yummy flavor to any dish!)

Pour into a bowl and enjoy!How did these Pandas get in my Ramen?? Oh well.. eat up

Variations:

If you want to add a few more things to your ramen that you might happen to have lying around the following work well (and are relatively inexpensive!)

- Rotisserie Chicken: I know the 7 dollar price tag seems steep but trust me if you shred one of those babies up and put it in a plastic container  you will get a minimum of 3-4 meals out of that (to share!). You can toss some of that bad boy in your ramen just before you add the egg and it will heat up nicely. Alternatively you could also buy canned chunk chicken.

- Cilantro or Green Onion: Do I need to explain the deliciousness? I didn’t think so. Add these to the water before the noodles.

- Soy sauce: I would recommend caution with this one though because soy is notoriously high in sodium (aka salt) and so is Ramen. There is such a thing as too much of a good thing if you catch my drift. Add to the pot after the noodles are cooked (along with the sesame oil if you are using it and the seasoning packet).

- Sesame Oil: A marginally pricey investment but you only need a few drops per use so it will last forever. My recommendation is to buy a tiny bottle of good oil (doesn’t have to be the most expensive bottle but don’t go bargin bin on this one). Make sure it is pure sesame oil (not a blend) and the darker version (Toasted) has the stronger flavor so I recommend it.

- Garlic: If you don’t have good knifes and cutting boards lying around (or don’t want to deal with mincing garlic) I would recommend buying one of the jars of pre-minced garlic from the grocery store. You can find them in the produce section, usually on a shelf somewhere (often below one of the freestanding produce displays). They are a couple of bucks but you will get many many uses out of them. Toss the garlic in with the water for the noodles at the very beginning and it will infuse the cooking water (and the noodles).

- Pandas: completely optional

Kara Miller is a professor at Babson College (no idea where that is honestly) ad recently wrote an Op-Ed for the Globe about how her American students consistently underperform her international students.

Now there are a couple of points I want to make about this article

  1. International students studying in the United States are most likely going to be highly internally motivated students to begin with
  2. Not all American students are lazy across the board – however we are nationally trending towards this

I don’t bring this article to your attention to call you out individually but I wanted you to think about this as many of you will be going to college next year.

To relate it to a concept that may be more relatable to you – if you have ever worked in a restaurant there is generally a belief that young people are bad tippers. The American educational system is already regarded as the “bad tippers” of the international community (and by that I mean to say that many international people look down on American education because of situations like this and others – if you want to talk more about this come see me ha ha) and it will only get worse if your generation doesn’t decide to make this country the academic powerhouse that it used to be.

Here is the article after the jump: My Lazy American Students

New Favorite Animal: Pangolin

Posted: December 10, 2009 in Information

baby Pangolin

EEGs of brain states

Are you asleep? Exploring the mind’s twilight zone – life – 07 October 2009 – New Scientist.

For years scientists have had some ideas pretty firmly entrenched in the way we view sleep.

1) Sleep is for consolidating memories (but how many times have you stayed up all night studying and still scored fine on the test the next day? or on the flip side taken a 2 hour nap and forgotten it all?)

2) Sleep is a separate state of being than being awake. You are either one or the other.

New studies are showing that we might be blurring the lines more than we initially thought. Take for example, grogginess. These new studies are suggesting that grogginess is actually a blurred line between asleep and awake – the responsive portions of your brain are on-line but your memory recall centers are still down for maintenance.

A Word about Cheating

Posted: December 6, 2009 in Information

You might be thinking to yourself – what’s the big deal? Everyone does it. We worked together.

Well you would be wrong. Cheating is not doing your own work, and claiming someone else’s work as your own. I know I have said many times that if I wanted a group lab report, essay, project, etc I would have asked for one but clearly my statements are falling on deaf ears.

Cheating is not tolerated in my classroom and when I catch you you WILL receive a zero for the assignment at best and a trip to your principal at worst.

One of your classmates said to me “Wow, you are the first teacher to notice” and seeing as how most of you are seniors I find that pathetic.

Plagiarism of any type, or cheating of any type is not and will not ever be acceptable in my class and I hope to NEVER see it again. I am very disappointed in those of you who chose incorrectly but hope that you will take this as a lesson learned.

I’m not a stickler about this because I’m a jerk –  but because this kind of behavior has serious consequences. In college being caught cheating has a penalty of permanent expulsion – if you don’t believe me read this article. Even if you think the punishment was severe for the crime, this could be you one day if you make the same mistake. In your job, cheating can get you fired… or sent to prison. Copyright infringement carries stiff fines and jail time, even if you didn’t mean to.

I hope this is the last time I have to speak about this, and I hope that you learn something from this experience.